Articles on Civil war

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In the 19th century, white families in the U.S. could easily acquire real estate. This was never the case for Black Americans. U.S. National Archives

The myth of the American Frontier still shapes U.S. racial divides

Old 19th-century agreements between the U.S. government which expelled Indigenous peoples from their land and gave it cheaply to white settlers continue to impact inequalities in the United States.
The remains of an Ixil man emerge from the ground, one of the countless victims of the civil war in Guatemala. Tristan Brand/FAFG Fundacion de Antropologia Forense de Guatemala

‘It is the job of the living to save the dead from drowning’

The Ixil people of Guatemala dream of the places where their dead, massacred during the country's armed conflict might be located.
To help with the rebuilding of Syria, we need to curb the rising tide of xenophobia online. Syrian refugees get ready to cross back into war-torn Syria from the eastern Lebanese border town of Arsal, June 28, 2018. (AP Photo/Bilal Hussein)

Syrian refugees — the need for an image reboot

One of the World Bank's mandates is to prepare for the physical and human capital reconstructions of post-conflict Syria. But an image reconstruction of Syrians and of Syrian refugees is also needed
Preparing to decorate graves, May 1899. Library of Congress

The forgotten history of Memorial Day

Memorial Day, a holiday that began 150 years ago, was born out of generous gestures after the Civil War: Southerners decorated graves of Confederate soldiers as well as those of former Union enemies.
Competition between neighbours, rather than between strangers living far apart, amplifies inequality. This can lead to homicide and civil war. Pexels

How competition fuels inequality and conflict

Competition between neighbours turns up the volume on inequality. Homicide and civil war may be the result.
A Rohingya Muslim child kisses his mother after they fled Myanmar for Bangladesh in September 2017. Thousands of Rohingya Muslims have fled their country for places like Malaysia and Thailand, where a UN agency assesses their refugee claims. But can the UNHCR unwittingly cause countries to neglect investigating war crimes? (AP Photo/Bernat Armangue)

The trouble with impunity: War crimes and a humanitarian agency

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees assesses the refugee claims of millions of people worldwide. It needs to be more open about what it discovers and how it makes decisions.
‘Farewell, to all my greatness’ — President Andrew Johnson’s departure from office was lampooned by Harper’s Weekly. Library of Congress

Andrew Johnson’s failed presidency echoes in Trump’s White House

A historian looks back at Andrew Johnson's unlikely and unsuccessful presidency and why he wasn't cut out for the job.
Central African Republic President Faustin-Archange Touadera inspects a guard of honor in Ivory Coast. Legnan Koula/EPA

For the Central African Republic there will be no peace without justice

Since civil war broke out in the Central African Republic four years ago, citizens continue to live in fear. They say that peace will only come when the war criminals are brought to justice.

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