Vaccines that help prevent meningococcal disease don't give lifetime protection.
Conflict patterns in Africa have changed rapidly in recent years posing a challenge to peace and security.
Mali faces huge challenges. Through the upcoming presidential election, Malians will tell the next president what they will and won't accept for their future.
The UN promotes local ownership in peace building, which is difficult to achieve.
What is a hero? If President Macron really likes heroes, shouldn’t he revise his idea of what he calls “economic migrants”?
There are several projects and initiatives that offer hope amid all the bad news about African science.
A big rise in armed attacks in the Sahel - and the intensity of the attacks in recent years - is now seen as a major source of concern.
Africa needs strong institutions. But they can only be built if there's a change in leadership.
West Africa has lessons to learn from its ancient empires and colonial governments on regional trade and integration.
The past 12 months provided further evidence of the danger of democratic backsliding in Africa. But it also saw powerful presidents suffer embarrassing setbacks in a number of countries.
Ségou in Mali has successfully developed its urban cultural economy in ways that's inclusive, sustainable and context-sensitive.
Some African countries present a facade of democracy. The absence of substantive democracy is contributing to instability on the continent.
Creating more opportunities for young women and girls to work and earn money is a possible solution to early marriages. Subsidising secondary education to keep poorer girls in school is another.
If the US, simply focuses on trying to hunt down jihadist leaders in Niger it will be missing an opportunity to address the underlying causes of violence in the region.
The ‘war on terror' in Mali is building alongside a growing number of multinationals hoping to extract the oil and gas reserves of the Taoudeni basin, and a strong foreign military presence.
The UK foreign secretary has been talking up the merits of clearing away bodies to build a new Dubai on the Libyan Med.
A well-trained military is crucial to a functioning civil democracy, but it can be a liability too.
Slashing funding will put carefully crafted initiatives at risk – and people will die because of it.
The International Criminal Court has told Malian radical Ahmad al-Faqi al-Mahdi to pay €2.7m in reparations for an attack on the world heritage site.
Attacks by Fulani herdsmen on communities in West Africa are increasing in number and in sophistication. Regional and national authorities must respond promptly to arrest the threat.