As the world warmed from the last ice age, a rise in carbon dioxide levels stalled for nearly 2,000 years. That's always puzzled scientists, but now they think they know what happened.
Not all clouds are the same, and climate models have been predicting the wrong kinds of clouds over the Southern Ocean.
Climate models have been overestimating how much sunlight hits the Southern Ocean. This is because the clouds there are different from clouds anywhere else. Bacterial DNA helped us understand why.
Climate change is changing Antarctic krill habitat. The repercussions for the Southern Ocean food web are huge.
Scientists were struggling to keep track of illegal fishing in international waters and the seabirds it threatened. Then they had an idea.
The Southern Ocean, as artists have uncovered, is also a treasure trove of cultural narratives.
Polar regions may be becoming more profitable, but these "benefits" come with far more severe costs.
During the Pliocene, up to one third of Antarctica’s ice sheet melted, causing sea-level rise of 20 metres.
New research shows that warming by more than 2°C could be a tipping point for Antarctica's ice sheets, resulting in widespread meltdown and changes to the world's shorelines for centuries to come.
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current keeps Antarctica cold.
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current provides a barrier to heat that keeps warm subtropical waters away from Antarctica. Yet, there are a few places where the heat gets through.
Southern bull kelp can drift huge distances before washing ashore.
A chance discovery of some kelp that floated for 20,000km before washing up on an Antarctic beach has opened up a new chapter in our understanding of the currents that swirl around the Southern Ocean.
Preliminary results of a study have shown microplastics have reached in a newly revealed Antarctic environment.
Without floating sea ice, climate-weakened ice shelves are wide open to attack by waves.
AAP Image/Caroline Berdon
Since 1995, several ice shelves off the Antarctic Peninsula have abruptly disintegrated. A new analysis suggests that these events are triggered when ice shelves lose their buffer of floating ice.
The pygmy right whale,
Caperea marginata, at sea.
Fossils of a whale thought to be found only in southern waters have been discovered at two sites in the northern hemisphere.
A photo from Sea Shepherd allegedly shows a Japanese whaling vessel with a dead minke whale on board.
EPA/GLENN LOCKITCH / SEA SHEPHERD HANDOUT
Japan is once again allegedly killing whales in Antarctica. But after taking Japan to international court in 2014, there's not much Australia can do.
The Tropic of Capricorn sign in Namibia. Expansion of the tropics will have huge implications for people and nature.
The tropics are expanding at an unprecedented rate. This will have massive implications for societies, economies and the natural world.
The idea is to come up with better alternatives to this.
Australian Customs and Border Protection Service
Japan's fleet is on its way to the Southern Ocean for more "scientific" whaling. But a new resolution pointing out the importance of whale poo could help remove Japan's rationale for lethal research.
The Balleny Islands off East Antarctica - one of the many stops along the way.
Why spend three months completing a lap of Antarctica (and probably getting seasick along the way)? It's the only way to get vital clues about the remote Southern Ocean and its influence on the planet.
Britain’s industrial pioneers couldn’t have known how they would affect the climate.
The first signs that humans were warming the climate appeared much earlier in the northern hemisphere - way back in the 1830s. But now the trend is emerging all over the globe.
South Africa’s oceans offer numerous economic opportunities, if ocean acidification is dealt with properly.
South Africa has the opportunity to benefit from its ocean economy. But to do that, the country needs to put better policies in place to counter ocean acidification.
Things got very wet, very quickly, in Brisbane in 2011.
AAP Image/Dave Hunt
Since 1999, Australia has swung between drought and deluge with surprising speed, because El Niño has fallen into sync with similar patterns in the Indian and Southern Oceans.
Rough conditions in the Southern Indian Ocean as the search for MH370 continues.
Australian Transport Safety Bureau/John Draves
There are hopes that another piece of the missing Malaysian Airlines flight MH370 has been found. But authorities still don't know what happened to the aircraft, and the 239 people on board.