Traditional leaders do not adequately represent the interests of rural communities in dealing with mining companies.
The law missed the opportunity to address misuse of mineral royalties and increase transparency as well as accountability in mineral royalty management.
Mining proposals are often hugely controversial in South Africa and can even lead to violence. Better strategic assessments based on participation and precaution would help.
Miners were among the first workers to organise into trade unions from the middle of the 1700s, battling a lack of legal recognition and resistance from the mine owners.