Technical expertise comes first: the first vessels through the Suez Canal in 1869.
The science of politics became popular across Europe, alongside the rise of capitalism and empire in the 19th century.
Dominic Cummings is looking for ‘cognitive diversity’ but history suggests that’s not easy to define.
Dominic Cummings should read up on a deeply flawed experiment from the 1940s before he reads through those job applications.
Transforming the civil service needs to go far beyond what degree new recruits studied.
Boris Johnson's adviser is asking job applicants to give him their all. And in return? He'll fire them on the spot if they don't fit in.
Cummings says the civil service is full of ‘hollow men’.
In the US, some federal departments become known as 'turkey farms' – stuffed with loyal but ultimately useless political appointees.
To some, White House aide Jennifer Williams and Lt. Col. Alexander Vindman are impartial truth-tellers; to others, they are power-hungry bureaucrats.
AP Photo/Andrew Harnik
Public officials are now in the spotlight: Does the public view them as professionals, bound by duty, or as elites who invoke ideals while pursuing their own agendas?
In 1978, President Jimmy Carter spoke at a Northern Virginia high school about civil service changes underway.
AP Photo/Jeff Taylor
It's dismantling the Office of Personnel Management and relocating hundreds of USDA research jobs on short notice.
South African Finance MInister Tito Mboweni delivering the 2019 budget speech in parliament.
South Africa's finance minister delivered a budget that tried to balance serving the public interest, while maintaining the stability of public finances.
Garbage piled up in the opposition-held city of Afrin, Syria, in March 2018.
Keeping the water and power on, managing sewers and collecting garbage will help communities shattered by the Syrian civil war rebuild – and keep out the Islamic State, says a former aid official.
Scotland’s former first minister Alex Salmond legally challenged the SNP government under the leadership of his former protege Nicola Sturgeon, and won.
With Brexit mired in doubt, it could be said the stars are aligning for Scottish independence. But now it looks like the SNP could self-combust after the government's humiliating court defeat.
Brexit looms large over Whitehall.
Victoria Jones/PA Wire
The workload is huge. So how is the civil service doing at preparing for the changes ahead?
Government departments have been squeezed particularly hard over the past few years. Now they need to find thousands of people who can work out how to leave the EU.
President Donald Trump speaks at a conference for law enforcement.
The Trump administration may do well to make a friend of the federal bureaucracy it's so intent on gutting, according to an expert who studies the role of civil servants in government.
Rogers was a key figure in Brexit negotiations.
The lack of respect shown to a senior civil servant working hard to make Brexit work is troubling.
Dominic Lipinski / PA Wire
The mandarins tasked with making Brexit happen are under strain.
There are worrying ramifications of the case against an honest bureaucrat in a corruption scandal in India.
Much is expected of South African President Jacob Zuma when he delivers his 2016 State of the Nation Address.
The general loss of faith in the economy is the most important issue President Zuma must address. More radical social and economic transformation, with emphasis on land reform will be most critical.
Thousands of civil service employees gather during a protest march for higher pay at the Union Buildings in Pretoria in 2010.
South Africa's government should urgently announce a moratorium on civil service employment growth. The country has reached its upper limit in the number of civil servants that can be sustained.
Secret evidence can leave employees in the dark.
Sacked from your job and never told why. Is this the new normal for some workers in Britain?
State-owned companies such as the power utility Eskom are a drain on the economy
After a decade of narrowing fiscal deficits, South Africa has borrowed heavily since 2009 to support the economy. The debt pile exposes the country to the risk of a sell-off by foreign bond holders