Twenty years after the first China-Africa forum, the perceptions of ordinary African citizens still need to be better considered in government-to-government interactions.
Indonesia's increasingly aggressive responses may fall short given the country's high military and economic dependence on China.
If China hopes to protect its economic interests in Southeast Asia's largest economy and improve its global image, it should help Indonesia during this pandemic.
Indonesia-Australia Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement has some apparent implementation challenges.
South Africa and Nigeria have had a turbulent relationship dating back to the early 1990s.