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Articles on Civil war

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Saudi King Salman accompanies Kuwait’s emir, Sheikh Sabah Al Ahmad Al Sabah, left, during the 40th Gulf Cooperation Council Summit in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, in December 2019. (AP Photo/Amr Nabil)

Why the Gulf monarchies have survived

Gulf monarchies emerged from the Arab Spring relatively unscathed, while some Middle East republics were devastated by civil war. Here's how they managed — and how education may have played a part.
Protesters at the Richmond, Virginia monument to Confederate General Robert E. Lee on June 18, 2020. Zach D Roberts/NurPhoto via Getty Images

African Americans have long defied white supremacy and celebrated Black culture in public spaces

Protests of Confederate flags and monuments have grown since 2015, but resistance is not new. African Americans have been protesting against Confederate monuments since they were erected.
A freedom march for Biafra held to mark the anniversary of the unilateral declaration of independence in 1967 that sparked a brutal 30-month civil war in Nigeria. Stefano Montesi - Corbis/Getty Images

We decrypted messages from the Biafran war that have remained secret for 50 years

Fifty years after the Biafran civil war in Nigeria, the efforts of secessionist diplomats have recently come to light through the decryption of telexes sent from Portugal to Biafra during the war.
Construction workers extracted a Calhoun statue in Charleston, South Carolina on June 24, 2020. Sean Rayford/Getty Images

Authorities are yanking the legacy of slaveholder John C. Calhoun from public sphere, but his bigotry remains embedded in American society

Despite his defense of slavery, the former vice president and US senator from South Carolina has been honored with statues and streets, schools and counties. That's finally changing.
President Donald Trump makes a statement to the press in the Rose Garden about restoring “law and order” in the wake of protests. Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images

Can the president really order the military to occupy US cities and states?

President Trump has warned that he will send the military into states to curb protests. Is Trump’s warning bluster? Or does the president have the authority to send the military into American cities?
A leader of the Three Percenters militia movement, Matt Marshall, speaks at an anti-lockdown protest, April 19, 2020 in Olympia, Washington. Getty/Karen Ducey

There’s a history of white supremacists interpreting government leaders’ words as encouragement

White supremacists' protests against COVID-19 lockdowns reflect the US history of political leaders encouraging white supremacist groups to challenge or overthrow democratic governments.
Singer-songwriter Norberto Amaya, pictured in the hat, singing at a refugee camp for El Salvadorians fleeing their country’s civil war, in La Virtud, Honduras, 1981. (Photo courtesy of Meyer Brownstone/Oxfam Canada)

Music helps us remember who we are and how we belong during difficult and traumatic times

People rely on familiar music to get through difficult times. Refugees from El Salvador's civil war used music to light up memories of their past.
Despite voter dissatisfaction with the Republican and Democratic parties, they are likely to persist. Shutterstock/Victor Moussa

The two-party system is here to stay

Despite the fact that only 38% of Americans say they think the Democratic and Republican parties are doing 'an adequate job,' they're unlikely to disappear.
Christmas tours to mansions often present a ‘magical’ experience to tourists, but they ignore the realities of the lives of slaves who worked there. Shreveport-Bossier Convention and Tourist Bureau/Flickr

Slave life’s harsh realities are erased in Christmas tours of Southern plantations

Fictional accounts of white Southerners make it seem like it was fun to be a slave on a plantation at holiday time. Many of today's tours repeat such stories.

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