Donald Trump continues to stoke his base with false allegations of a 'rigged' election, meaning widespread violence is still possible post-election as the U.S. devolves into a fragile state.
If there's not a clear winner of the November 3 election and the current president refuses to leave office, here are six scenarios that could play out.
Are the conditions ripe in the US for violence before, during or after the presidential election?
The occurrence of violence in Kenya is a joint production between political elites and ordinary citizens.
Political legacies generated during authoritarian rule have a tendency to transcend into the multiparty era.
During the campaign, partisans of all political stripes were responsible for the violence. But Frelimo supporters were far more aggressive and violent.
Nigerian print media played a crucial role in monitoring violence, and thereby deterring it.
After a long history of botched elections, Nigerians are hopeful that the 2019 poll results will be more credible.
Incumbent Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta will be Mali's next president but an unremarkable first term, and a flawed election, could put a dent in his legacy.
Winners and losers are both trying to win the West’s support for their view.
In a political environment where voters are increasingly attuned to instances of polling malpractice, African states are grudgingly adopting technology as a barrier to election fraud.
In America's past, efforts by disadvantaged citizens to secure greater political influence have been met with violent repression.
Gabon has the lowest trust ratings of any election commission among the 36 African countries surveyed by Afrobarometer.
As Zambia prepares to go to the polls again the entire party system is in flux, electoral violence has been worryingly frequent and the country's democratic credentials are increasingly in doubt