The birth rate was lower and the death rate markedly higher in areas outside government control in the Central African Republic.
President Emmerson Mnangagwa has not faced official investigation or prosecution over his role in Operation Gukurahundi – 40 years on.
The circumstances, challenges and history of Rwanda are intertwined with Paul Kagame’s own life story.
Recent studies on mass violence have turned the spotlight on the resilience of targeted individuals and communities.
With Africa’s solid support and his pro-west military and policy adventures, Kagame is able to take on critics.
The International Criminal Tribunals for Rwanda (ICTR) and for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) have tried dozens of individuals. An investigation looks at how the accused experienced these trials.
There isn’t one, clear-cut way to prevent genocide. But there are effective methods of prevention that governments can take.
Consolidating peace efforts across the vast territory has proved difficult for close to three decades. Scholars explain why.
Rwanda has rebuffed international pressure to release Paul Rusesabagina, a man made famous by Hollywood.
The US has become one of Rwanda’s staunchest defenders.
When a patriarchal society is combined with a history of colonialism, women in that country are at heightened risk of gender-based violence.
All terrorism in the region has domestic origins but is linked to regional and international events.
Domestic and geopolitical factors mean that the Ethiopian conflict has enough fuel to burn for some time.
Africa needs to embrace a new approach that focuses on what countries in an embattled region – as a ‘community’ of regional states – can do to intervene.
It will take time for Rwandans, especially those who suffered or witnessed the genocide, to trust France again.
Former fighters described Ongwen as a model fighter and an effective commander – but testimony in his trial detailed the former child soldier’s alleged personal role in the rape of underage women.
Kabuga’s arrest marks the beginning of a long legal process in which the prosecution faces numerous challenges.
Between 1992 and 1994, the former regime is said to have imported 581 tonnes of machetes into Rwanda. This figure appears to establish that the genocide was planned. But is this number accurate?
Given the contested success of transitional justice in Rwanda, the arrest showcases the mixed record of international justice.
Though genocide survivors would ideally want Kabuga to be prosecuted in Rwanda, it won’t be possible, for legal or political reasons.