Throughout the entire period, central political power has been almost absolute.
Kofi Annan's tenure began after the reintroduction of two important international security lexicons -- peacebuilding and human security.
Kofi Annan was the first UN employee to rise to the position of Secretary General but his tenure also had a darker side.
As Rwanda marks the 24th anniversary of the 1994 genocide, much more needs to be done to unite the country.
The genocide memory in Rwanda is diverse and dynamic.
Genocide doesn't begin with mass murder. It's a long, insidious process that can be stopped before it's too late.
The West needs to push for local action against Islamic State's reign of terror in the Middle East. States in the region must find solutions to the conflicts to bring peace and stability.
Very little is known about suicide and suicide attempts during modern genocides – but we do know there is an aftermath of suicide among victims.
The 1994 Rwandan genocide evokes shame, despair, and revulsion.Yet, the events warrant reflection and remind us about the risks of looking the other way.
The road to reconciliation doesn't begin and end with truth commissions or trials. Change must occur at a systemic level, and communities must commit to rebuilding relationships.
Significant links connect racial science in colonial southern Africa with the holocaust of the European Jews. Colonial racial science also contributed to the 1994 genocide in Rwanda.
The prospects for reconciliation are bleak. Formal gestures by the government to nudge the opposition parties to join an intra-Burundi dialogue have consistently failed.
Unscrupulous politicians are adept at using regressive story lines that feed insecurities. That could be dangerous ahead of South Africa's hotly-contested municipal elections.