Water at informal settlements, where sanitation and waste management facilities were absent, had high bacteria levels.
Communication between programmers and local communities can provide good opportunities in the toilet prototyping process from the beginning of the design process.
Most of the wastewater produced worldwide receives no treatment and the nutrients in wastewater go to waste. Here's how households can draw these nutrients from urine and use them as fertilisers.
Will the COVID-19 pandemic change the global balance of power? It wouldn't be the first time.
In cross-sector collaboration, communities and citizens articulate their needs and then partner with governments and NGOs to address these self-identified problems.
Studies globally have made the link between the lack of adequate sanitation, particularly open defecation or shared community toilet facilities, and the increased risk of women and girls being raped.
There is no clear delineation of roles and responsibilities relating to the integration of clean water, sanitation, safe hygiene and nutritional status.
Coronavirus has amplified the fact that inadequate toilet access has long been a feature of UK life for many, including women and the disabled. Vulnerable people deserve better.
Even in hospitals, where hand hygiene is vital, staff don't always remember to wash their hands. What hope is there for the rest of us? Thankfully, research on handwashing behaviours has some answers.
Superbugs spread through the environment – and it needs urgent attention.
During normal times, and even more during the present pandemic, access to clean water and proper sanitation is essential.
With no place to wash hands and nowhere to physically isolate, many poor Indonesians are incredibly vulnerable as COVID-19 sweeps through the global south.
Unlike in wealthy nations, lockdowns are simply impossible in overcrowded conditions with no sanitation and high levels of poverty.
The coronavirus, like many infectious diseases, can live and spread on inanimate objects in the world around us. An epidemiologist explains how and gives some advice on how to minimize the risk.
The Tubeho Neza programme has showed that it is possible to provide interventions against major diseases to vulnerable households.
The foundations of orderliness for any city are planning and management. Lagos had this in place in the early days.
Because Helicobacter Pylori is contagious, treating it properly is key to preventing its spread.
Vanuatu has banned them outright, while many Chinese families use just one every 24 hours. So why are Australians still sending millions of dirty nappies to landfill every single day?
Research shows that targeting poor communities will go a long way in solving the country's open defecation issues.
Across Africa less than 10% of the population is connected to a sewer system. But the waste could be used elsewhere.