Anglophones have long complained that their language and culture are marginalised. They say if this doesn't change, they must be granted independence.
French is no longer taught as a European language representative of "French" culture in South Africa. New modes of teaching, learning and research speak to an inclusive Africanist agenda.
West African leaders have nursed the idea of a common currency for the sub-region since the turn of the century. But conditions for member countries to make this happen appear unattainable.
Despite being led by different presidents over the past six decades, the French government's policy on Africa has been faithful to its neo-colonial roots. Will Macron's government be any different?
French and African presidents have, in the past, entertained close relationships outside official channels. These often included illegitimate exchanges. But there are signs that this is changing.