There are regions in South Africa where it hasn't been established if the rainy season is in summer or winter.
In South Africa, Cape Town fears "Day Zero", when the city will have to ration water drastically. The phenomenon threatens other cities as well but solutions exist.
Day Zero will be the start of active water rationing when taps will be cut off and people will have to go to collection sites.
Desalination has been proposed as one of many strategies to deal with the water shortages. But the process is known to be expensive and harmful to the environment.
Early warning signs of a pending drought are difficult to recognise but cities will have to be better prepared for prolonged changes in weather patterns, so that it can respond quickly.
Drought is a problem in South Africa and it affects farmers. As a result, farmers and government are working together to develop strategies.
Many African cities are sites of rapid urbanisation. To ensure that such societies are water resilient, it is necessary to address formal and informal forms of development.
The water crisis in South Africa could have been avoided through better planning.
The current drought in southern Africa is as a result of a powerful El Niño event. Better planning and forecasting could help mitigate the effects.