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Judge Steven Alm pioneered the HOPE project, the first of scores of swift and certain sanction programmes in the US. Youtube/PBS screenshot

Swift and certain sanctions: does Australia have room for HOPE?

The success of probation programmes based on swift and certain sanctions has led to more than 160 such schemes operating in the US. Australia should consider whether the model might work here too.
For the first time, the February monthly average carbon dioxide levels at the Mauna Loa Observatory have passed 400ppm. NOAA/Wikimedia Commons

February carbon dioxide levels average 400ppm for first time

We have hit a new milestone in carbon dioxide levels: the average for February topped 400ppm. It's the first time this has happened in the northern winter, when levels are typically lower than in summer.
Crickets on the Hawaiian islands of Oahu (pictured) and Kalau have evolved to keep quiet. Trey Ratcliff/Flickr

Sound of silence: crickets rapidly evolved to hide from deadly flies

Crickets are nothing if not noisy, but populations on two Hawaiian islands have embraced silence by rapidly losing sound-producing…

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