Bashar al-Assad, Vladimir Putin and Recep Tayyip Erdogan have a long history as leaders of their countries and players in the Syrian war.
More than five years into a catastrophic, multi-sided war of attrition, a new order for Syria is coming into view.
In the Middle East, there will be no easy choices for the incoming Trump administration - and a wild ride is likely to continue.
The Assad regime's takeover of Aleppo is a major strategic and psychological blow for the Syrian opposition.
With the rebels on the back foot and the US sidelined, other major players hold the keys to Syria's future.
The most disastrous conflict to break out in the Obama years is still nowhere near its end. It could have been very different.
Muslims everywhere were offended and psychologically shocked by the president-elect’s views. But Syria and Egypt think they can benefit from a Trump presidency.
Encounters with Western countries continue to colour political discourses, including on gender in turbulent Syria. But women's influence is more diverse and powerful than what is portrayed.
World powers including Russia, the US and Turkey all have a stake in the Syrian conflict – but the networks they rely on for influence are constantly in flux.
The problem with Syria is that all sides have their own reasons for acting the way they do – and they all think they're right.
We're unlikely to see the Syrian leader face charges for crimes against humanity any time soon.
Critics claim that Russia and Syria are targeting civilians with thermobaric 'vacuum' bombs.
The survival of civilians seem forgotten in a new U.S. and Russian agreement to root out IS and other terrorists in Syria.
Three suicide bombers killed 42 at Turkey's busiest airport June 28. A scholar explains how Turkey's foreign policy blunders have made the country such a target for terrorist attacks.
Syria's chemical weapons were supposedly all destroyed in 2014, but news reports indicate that nerve gas may have been kept back.
The world has singularly failed to find a path forward for Syria – or to stop the Assad government flagrantly violating all efforts to stop the conflict.
Political will could have rescued Palmyra. Here's why it didn't.
News from Syria that the ancient town has been taken back from Islamic State is good news – but especially for Putin and Assad.
The Russian president is proving he has learned what America didn't: to quit while ahead.
Speaking to The Atlantic, the president didn't leave anything out – except the bit where thousands died and millions lost their homes.