Local residents holding Chinese and Olympic flags attend a rehearsal in Chongli county of Zhangjiakou ahead of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing.
Sporting extravaganzas are a way for globalising cities in emerging market economies to try and play the "modernity game". But they don't make the rules, and so they can never "win".
Slum in Paris, by the Pont des Poissonniers.
Slums are an increasing common phenomenon across the global North and global South. To what extent could they be seen as an inherent part of the urbanisation process?
Is there really a strong division between folks like Brexit leader Farage and global citizens Bill Gates and Canadian PM Justin Trudeau?
REUTERS/Peter Nicholls, Geoff Robins
Data show that many people who consider themselves ‘global citizens’ also harbor strong national sentiments. The two aren’t mutually exclusive.
In Maboneng, bikes and bistros abound. In adjacent inner-city Johannesburg, people struggle to survive.
South African Tourism/Flickr
Maboneng in Johannesburg represents one strand of the type of urban “development” that's advocated for by the proponents of “global cities”.