They erupted for billions of years and make Earth's volcanoes look like molehills. Here's what we know and what we don't know about them.
Ambae does not fit the stereotypical image of a volcano, and it poses a significant threat.
Warnings are being issued to stay clear of an Indonesian volcano following a series of earthquakes.
The treaty to limit the destruction of the ozone layer is hailed as the most successful environmental agreement of all time. Three decades on, the ozone layer is slowly but surely returning to health.
Earth's thermostat can fail spectacularly at times. Around 700 million years ago, huge volcanic eruptions triggered "Snowball Earth".
18,000 years ago a volcano in Antartica began erupting – and didn't stop for 192 years.
More than 100 volcanoes lie beneath the continent's ice sheet.
Indigenous people recorded stories that provide much detail about eruptions in Australia. They can help us date natural events in the past and are legitimate sources of scientific information.
The volcanoes would be a great place t to search for fossilised microbes.
New research shows that satellite measurements of tiny movements of the Earth's surface can tell scientists what is happening in the deeper layers of our planet.
Mercury found in prehistoric rock bolsters the idea that volcanoes caused a mass extinction 200m years ago.
Melting ice from Antartica could feed vast plankton blooms, trapping carbon in the ocean. To understand this complex mechanism, researchers looked at volcanoes deep under glaciers.
The planet is more similar to Earth than any other – except when it comes to supporting life.
The Noril’sk nickel deposits In Russia are unique: giant volcanic eruptions 250 million years ago released colossal amounts of nickel into the atmosphere, kickstarting the Great Dying.
The clock is ticking.
The nine metre-high waves that smashed into Minoan civilisation on Crete weren't caused by the volcano collapsing.
Mexico's Colima volcano erupted a few days ago, reminding the local population of the danger posed by the country's two active volcanos.
A volcanic eruption in 1815 triggered a year without a summer – prompting a flowering of nature writing that is all too relevant today.
Earth is the only planet in our solar system with both plate tectonics and life. Is there a connection?
When Mount Sinabung erupted in Indonesia, researchers were already in the area to investigate how locals coped with the ongoing risk.