If successful, solar geoengineering would would reduce the amount of sunlight that reaches the Earth’s surface and warms the planet.
Solar geoengineering could theoretically cool the Earth to slow global warming, and it has been controversial. Still, countries should research its risks and benefits.
Blue sharks, which are prized for their fins, swimming off Cape Point in South Africa.
Sharks grow slowly and produce few young compared to bony fishes. In many cases, this means that their populations are fished out faster than can be replenished if not well managed.
Morgan Pratchett, ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies
A study of 183 coral reefs worldwide quantified the impacts of ocean warming and acidification on reef growth rates. Even under the lowest emissions scenarios, the future of reefs is not bright.
A future of heat and strife or humanity’s finest hour – our response to climate change today will define the 21st century.
The Chagos Reef was vibrant before the heat wave.
Ken Marks/Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation
Scientists watched in real time as rising ocean heat transformed the sprawling reef. It was a harbinger for ecosystems everywhere as the planet warms.
In August 2019 in the port of Marseille. The docking of cruise ships intensifies air pollution.
The Mediterranean region, with its biodiversity, climate, demographics, and economic activities such as tourism, agriculture and fisheries, is particularly vulnerable to environmental risks.
The Galapagos Marine Reserve is home to nearly 3,000 marine species.
Marine protected areas will be important for achieving the ocean Sustainable Development Goals.
Fluorescence images of Crocosphaera.
In the ocean, phytoplankton helped by diazotrophs play an outstanding role in withdrawing CO₂ from the atmosphere. But climate change is disturbing this delicate balance.
The Pacific Ocean produces oxygen, helps regulates the weather, provides food and livelihoods. It’s a place of fun, solace and spiritual connection. But its delicate ecology is under threat.
CT scan of a catshark hatchling head. Note the ridged scales.
Rory Cooper, Kyle Martin & Amin Garbout/Natural History Museum London
Shark skin is composed of millions of tiny scales, which have a similar chemical composition to human teeth.
Land clearing, cattle populations and carbon emissions stand alongside temperature as important measures of climate change.
What if the nightly news had regular updates on forest clearing, ocean temperatures and fossil fuel consumption? These indicators sit alongside temperatures as signs of climate change.
The IPCC report provides fresh details on scope of the effects of climate change.
John B. Weller
A new Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report makes clear human-induced climate change threatens the health and function of the ocean and cryosphere - the frozen regions of the Earth.
Resilient corals are offering hope for bleached reefs.
How super is a super coral? And what are they super at? Protecting our coral reefs means we need to find out.
Researchers investigated how acidic oceans affect plankton in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica.
Daniel A. Nielsen
Acidic oceans are disrupting a major part of the carbon cycle, slowing how seas absorb carbon from the atmosphere. This could massively speed up the effects of climate change.v
A healthy coral reef at Swains island, American Samoa.
NOAA/NMFS/PIFSC/CRED, Oceanography Team.
In a study that cultivated coral ‘gardens’ with varying numbers of species, plots with more species were healthier. This finding could inform strategies to help coral reefs survive climate change.
Acidic seawater conditions are interfering with the ability of shellfish to produce strong, resilient shells, and it’s happening all over the world.
Fire danger conditions are worsening in many areas of Australia.
AAP Image/David Crosling
Australia is facing an increase in extreme heat, fire danger weather, floods and marine heatwaves, according to the latest biennial snapshot from the Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO.
Climate change will affect the nutrition of seaweeds eaten by billions of people around the world.
Many Caribbean reefs are now dominated by sponges.
Marine sponges are ancient organisms that have survived mass extinctions. Many are more tolerant of climate change and may dominate over corals in future reef systems.
Researchers studied reef sands at Heron Island, Hawaii, Bermuda and Tetiaroa. In this photo, white areas show the predominance of sand on reefs.
Southern Cross University
Ocean acidification poses an increasing threat to the sediments that form the framework of coral reefs - within around 30 years, these carbonate sands may no longer be able to form.