CT scan of a catshark hatchling head. Note the ridged scales.
Rory Cooper, Kyle Martin & Amin Garbout/Natural History Museum London
Shark skin is composed of millions of tiny scales, which have a similar chemical composition to human teeth.
Land clearing, cattle populations and carbon emissions stand alongside temperature as important measures of climate change.
What if the nightly news had regular updates on forest clearing, ocean temperatures and fossil fuel consumption? These indicators sit alongside temperatures as signs of climate change.
The IPCC report provides fresh details on scope of the effects of climate change.
John B. Weller
A new Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report makes clear human-induced climate change threatens the health and function of the ocean and cryosphere - the frozen regions of the Earth.
Resilient corals are offering hope for bleached reefs.
How super is a super coral? And what are they super at? Protecting our coral reefs means we need to find out.
Researchers investigated how acidic oceans affect plankton in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica.
Daniel A. Nielsen
Acidic oceans are disrupting a major part of the carbon cycle, slowing how seas absorb carbon from the atmosphere. This could massively speed up the effects of climate change.v
A healthy coral reef at Swains island, American Samoa.
NOAA/NMFS/PIFSC/CRED, Oceanography Team.
In a study that cultivated coral 'gardens' with varying numbers of species, plots with more species were healthier. This finding could inform strategies to help coral reefs survive climate change.
Acidic seawater conditions are interfering with the ability of shellfish to produce strong, resilient shells, and it's happening all over the world.
Fire danger conditions are worsening in many areas of Australia.
AAP Image/David Crosling
Australia is facing an increase in extreme heat, fire danger weather, floods and marine heatwaves, according to the latest biennial snapshot from the Bureau of Meteorology and CSIRO.
Climate change will affect the nutrition of seaweeds eaten by billions of people around the world.
Many Caribbean reefs are now dominated by sponges.
Marine sponges are ancient organisms that have survived mass extinctions. Many are more tolerant of climate change and may dominate over corals in future reef systems.
Researchers studied reef sands at Heron Island, Hawaii, Bermuda and Tetiaroa. In this photo, white areas show the predominance of sand on reefs.
Southern Cross University
Ocean acidification poses an increasing threat to the sediments that form the framework of coral reefs - within around 30 years, these carbonate sands may no longer be able to form.
Giant triton molluscs are a useful ally in battling the coral-grazing crown-of-thorns starfish.
AAP Image/AIMS, K Goodbun
The federal government's new funding aims to spread the net wide in investigating possible ways to protect the Great Barrier Reef's corals. Winning this battle will require a wide range of weapons.
A tank can give a good idea of what will happen out in the wild.
A new study suggests the benefits of a boost to marine plant growth from increased carbon dioxide will be cancelled out by the increased stress to fish species.
IPSO's latest ruling makes a mockery of journalism's commitment to seeking the truth.
A massive fish die-off occurred in Redondo Beach, California in 2011 caused by oxygen-starved fish.
Warming waters due to climate change are losing oxygen, threatening the health of fish and ecosystems.
The second-noisiest animal in the ocean, the snapping shrimp.
Dr Tullio Rossi
The oceans are filled with sounds produced by animals. However, a recent study shows that ocean sounds are diminishing due to nutrient pollution and ocean acidification.
Live crab at a Seattle market.
Global climate change is altering the chemistry of the oceans. A recent study suggests that the Pacific coast's lucrative Dungeness crab fishery could suffer as ocean water becomes more acidic.
Atmospheric, marine, environmental, biological and medical scientists join in calling for more focus on the damage being wrought by climate change.
A bloom of phytoplankton in the Barents Sea: the milky blue colour strongly suggests it contains coccolithopores.
Wikimedia/NASA Earth Observatory
Tiny organisms change ocean acidity to benefit themselves.
Dan Lee / shutterstock
'Smell-free seas' would be a disaster for marine life.