What lies beneath: bedrock peeks through the Antarctic ice.
Russ Hepburn, Kenn Borek Air
Buried beneath kilometres-thick slabs of ice are rivers and huge lakes - some of which are teeming with microbes that thrive in a world without light or oxygen.
The Chinese icebreaker Xue Long sails from Fremantle Harbour on its way home from Antarctica.
Australia and China both have a keen interest in the frozen continent. And while they don't agree on everything, there is great scope for scientific collaboration.
Australia (whose flag is pictured on the right) is one of several countries with a big stake in the South Pole.
Josh Landis/US NSF/Wikimedia
It's one of the remotest places on Earth and yet is still claimed by six nations – including Australia.
Ban on CFCs in aerosol sprays and refrigerants has led to a steady shrinking of the ozone hole.
What the Montreal Protocol has done for the ozone hole threat other international accords could do for climate change – if we all agree.
Vote Leave claims the EU is the slowest growing area in the world. Are they right?
Antarctica’s delicate ecosystem could be under threat from invasive species.
A warming Earth could see invading species arrive in Antarctica via the floating "taxi service" of the sea. That could be a threat to the southern continent's delicate ecosystem.
Ancient air bubbles preserved in Antarctic ice.
The Ellsworth Mountains Project
What gaps have the CSIRO cuts left in climate research?
Some parts of Antarctica’s Totten Glacier are more stable than others.
New mapping shows how Antarctica's huge Totten Glacier has retreated far inland, raising sea levels by more than a metre. Rising temperatures could trigger it to do so again.
Tasmania’s Cape Grim monitoring station passed a crucial carbon dioxide threshold this month.
Bureau of Meteorology
Atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements at Tasmania's Cape Grim and Antarctica's Casy Station have now officially passed 400 parts per million and are likely to stay above that for decades to come.
The past century hasn’t seen the worst drought that Australia’s climate can throw at us.
A new millennium-long record reveals that Australia has suffered longer droughts and wet periods than those recorded in the past century's weather observations.
Research expeditions, like this one to Antarctica, don’t have to rely on governments for funding.
In an atmosphere of declining government funding for science, researchers can drum up excitement and funding in other ways, just as they did in Edwardian times.
A burst of ghostly neutrinos may have been generated by a quasar like this.
A burst of neutrinos detected deep under the Antarctic ice may have originated from a distant quasar on the edge of the visible universe.
Glaciers have been a major contributor to sea-level rise.
Could sea levels really rise by several metres this century. Probably not, although this century's greenhouse emissions could potentially set the stage for large rises in centuries to come.
Where the ice meets the sea: Antarctica’s ice shelves play a key role in how fast ice sheets melt.
Antarctica image from www.shutterstock.com
As the world warms, Antarctica's melting ice will likely reach the point of no return.
DNA analysis reveals that there are three populations of Antarctic blue whales.
Paula Olson, courtesy of IWC
Antarctica's blue whales all feed in the same place. But a new genetic analysis suggests they are actually three separate populations that breed in different parts of the globe.
Million-year-old ice likely lies more than 3km below Antarctica’s surface.
Tas van Ommen
Ice cores tell us vital information about how the world's climate has changed - and how it will change in the future.
We still don’t know enough about questions such as where the tipping points are for Arctic ice melt.
Christine Zenino/Wikimedia Commons
The Paris agreement has given us some solid targets to aim for in terms of limiting global warming. But that in turn begs a whole range of new scientific questions.
Adélie Penguins struggle to reach their nesting sites if there’s too much ice in the way.
Despite their image as cold-loving creatures, Adélie penguins could be winners from climate change.
Ice cold physics: hunting for neutrinos in Antarctica.
Sven Lidström, IceCube/NSF
A cubic kilometer of clear, stable ice could help physicists answer big questions about cosmic rays and neutrinos. Hardy scientists collect data via a unique telescope at the frozen bottom of the world.
Antarctica is vital to the planet’s climate system.
Antarctic image from www.shutterstock.com
Why should we care if the polar ice sheets melt hundreds of years in the future? Because they are vital for maintaining our current climate.