A key electoral reform in 2009 shifted the focus of legislative elections from political parties to individual candidates.
Indonesia has long been held up as a model of democratic transition in the Muslim world. This view of the country now needs rethinking.
A recently passed regulation in lieu of law allows the government to ban organisations deemed against Indonesia's state ideology Pancasila. It marks a troubling turn towards ultra-nationalism.
Indonesian politicians have engaged in post-truth politics, framing information and stories by appealing to emotions with very little or no regard to any policy details and objective facts.
Ethnic Chinese and Christians in Indonesia have endured systematic and long-standing discrimination throughout the country's history.
There are elements of intolerance and racism in Indonesia. But that does not necessarily mean that an organised Islamic political movement is on the rise.
Would religious and ethnic narratives be effective at swaying voters?