We may think tattooing is a modern phenomenon, but the reasons for its popularity are not dissimilar to those seen in the prisons and convict ships of the Victorian era.
Swedish researcher Andreas Johansson interviewed 30 members of a Japanese Yakuza clan in 2015.
The curse of the tattooed ex was well-known in 18th-century Japan.
Court ruling casts shadow on Japan's tattoo industry.
Japanese tattoos have been popular in the UK since King George V. But things are different in Japan.