South Africa frequently invokes its celebrated constitution that is based on human rights, but has often failed to live up to its ideals.
The Democratic Republic of Congo’s new leader Felix Tshisekedi is being undermined by the outgoing regime of Joseph Kabila.
The intertwining of the market, state and society has continued to see itself expressed through music in the DRC.
The DRC could be the exception after a year in which opposition parties fared badly across East and Central Africa.
Graft is common in the way that markets in Kinshasa are run.
Congolese singer Papa Wemba might have been one of Africa’s best loved musicians - but his politics wasn’t popular with all his compatriots.