The threat of expensive payouts may already be having an effect.
Tom Stoddart/Getty Images
A new study adds up the potential legal and financial risk countries could face from hundreds of agreements, like those under the Energy Charter Treaty.
A Russian warship, the Patrol Ship Dmitry Rogachev, travels through the Dardanelles on Feb. 15, 2022.
Anadolu Agency via Getty Images
The Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Straits gives Turkey control over the water route between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean.
The International Space Station is run collectively by the U.S., Russia, the European Space Agency, Japan and Canada.
NASA Marshall Spaceflight Center/Flickr
What happens to the International Space Station when tensions on Earth rise? A space policy expert explains how the ISS is run and how Russian aggression has threatened its operation in the past – and now.
Plastic trash floating on the Buriganga river in Dhaka, Bangladesh,
Jan. 21, 2020.
Munir Uz Zaman/AFP via Getty Images
Representatives of 175 countries voted to start developing a global treaty to reduce plastic waste. Treaties addressing mercury, long-range air pollution and ozone depletion offer some lessons.
A man from Skuppah Indian Band rides off on his motorcycle after stopping to watch a wildfire burn on the side of a mountain in Lytton, B.C., in July 2021.
THE CANADIAN PRESS/Darryl Dyck
While climate migration may be on the rise in Canada, it has been disproportionately impacting Indigenous people and communities for years.
A global treaty bans research or stockpiling of biological weapons — but allows bioweapon defense planning.
US Dept. of Defense via DVIDS
The sketchy history of international efforts to control bioweapons suggests that nations will resist cooperative monitoring of gene hacking for medical research.
Youth with Music for the Spirit & Indigenous Visual Arts work on projects about relationships with water at Six Nations of the Grand River.
Collaborative research sought to document Six Nations youth perspectives shared through art and story to inform principles for water management in the lower Grand River.
Through the Paris Agreement, the world’s countries agreed to work to keep global warming well under 2 degrees Celsius.
Saeed Khan/AFP via Getty Images
The US is formally back in the Paris climate agreement as of today. As one of the world’s largest greenhouse gas emitters, it has a lot of work to do, with food security, health and safety at stake.
Britain’s Queen Elizabeth II greets Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman at Buckingham Palace in central London on March 7, 2018.
To ensure its energy security and influence in the Gulf region, the United Kingdom will likely deepen its relations with GCC nations in a post-Brexit world.
Activists protest outside of COP25 climate talks in Madrid, Dec. 14, 2019.
AP Photo/Manu Fernandez
Activists wanted nations to make bigger climate commitments at the Madrid COP-25 meeting, but the meeting’s real goal was agreeing on rules for pricing carbon pollution.
Secretary-General Antonio Guterres addresses the Climate Summit in the U.N. General Assembly, Sept. 23, 2019.
AP Photo/Jason DeCrow
President Trump has confirmed that the US will leave the Paris Agreement on climate change on the earliest allowable date: Nov. 4, 2020. Will this hobble efforts to slow global warming?
It was defoliants, seen here during Operation Ranch Hand in the Vietnam War, that prompted action to protect the environment during conflicts.
National Museum of the US Air Force
A group of scientists want a new Geneva Convention to safeguard the environment during wars and conflicts. We already have such rules, but they’re inadequate, inconsistent and unclear.
Chen Yabian, 74, of Hainan Province, southern China, testifies during the International Symposium on Chinese ‘Comfort Women’ in 2000 in Shanghai that she was 14 when Japanese Imperial Army soldiers forced her to work as a sex slave during the war.
US agreements with Germany, France, Switzerland and Austria provide reparations to WWII victims. But an international law scholar writes that the US has failed to address war crimes in Asia.
The U.S. military is already testing a Modular Advanced Armed Robotic System.
Lance Cpl. Julien Rodarte, U.S. Marine Corps
A standard element of international humanitarian law since 1899 should guide countries as they consider banning lethal autonomous weapons systems.
Trump against the world?
Jesco Denzel/German Federal Government via AP
International trade policy requires three traits to be successful and lead to mutual prosperity. Trump’s is missing all three, as he showed at the G-7 summit.
Trumpeter swans wintering at the Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge in Wyoming.
Tom Koerner, USFWS/Flickr
The Trump administration is narrowing protection for migratory birds to cover only deliberate harm such as hunting, but not threats like development or pollution that kill millions of birds yearly.
Terns at sunset, Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge, Massachusetts.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service/Flickr
Migratory birds play key ecological roles. and connect us with nature. The 1916 Migratory Bird Treaty curbed overhunting, but birds face other threats today that require international solutions.
Public interest and peer pressure among countries are integral to enforcement of the Paris Agreement.
The Paris Agreement recognizes the reality of global environmental pacts: the private sector must lead transition to low-carbon technology and civil society must keep up the pressure to act.
The Republican “open letter” to Iran may have opened floodgates for more partisan efforts at foreign relations.
The firestorm over the Republican “open letter” to Iran may be an indication of things to come in a digital era where everyone can talk to anyone.