Sea ice covering the Arctic Ocean during the winter peak in February 2015.
NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio
There is no doubt that 2016 has been a record-breaking year for the Earth’s climate.
Next year the Ross Sea will be home to the world’s largest marine reserve.
Andrew Mandemaker/Wikimedia Commons
After years of stalled negotiations, China has ended its opposition to the world's largest marine park off Antarctica - part of a wider trend towards increased Chinese involvement in global governance.
The Balleny Islands off East Antarctica - one of the many stops along the way.
Why spend three months completing a lap of Antarctica (and probably getting seasick along the way)? It's the only way to get vital clues about the remote Southern Ocean and its influence on the planet.
Antarctica hangs in the balance. Five cities have the chance of securing the future of this fragile continent.
An icebreaker makes its way through Antarctica’s sea ice.
After record-breaking amounts of sea ice in Antartica, this year we're seeing record lows.
End of an era? The Macquarie Island research base could close next year.
The shock decision to close Australia's year-round research station at Macquarie Island will make monitoring Antarctica and the Southern Ocean harder, and will force Tasmania to get creative.
Britain’s industrial pioneers couldn’t have known how they would affect the climate.
The first signs that humans were warming the climate appeared much earlier in the northern hemisphere - way back in the 1830s. But now the trend is emerging all over the globe.
Antarctica’s ice sheets will continue to melt long after this century.
Antarctica image from www.shutterstock.com
If we accept that 2 degrees warming is dangerous this century, we have to accept it is dangerous beyond.
What lies beneath: bedrock peeks through the Antarctic ice.
Russ Hepburn, Kenn Borek Air
Buried beneath kilometres-thick slabs of ice are rivers and huge lakes - some of which are teeming with microbes that thrive in a world without light or oxygen.
The Chinese icebreaker Xue Long sails from Fremantle Harbour on its way home from Antarctica.
Australia and China both have a keen interest in the frozen continent. And while they don't agree on everything, there is great scope for scientific collaboration.
Australia (whose flag is pictured on the right) is one of several countries with a big stake in the South Pole.
Josh Landis/US NSF/Wikimedia
It's one of the remotest places on Earth and yet is still claimed by six nations – including Australia.
Ban on CFCs in aerosol sprays and refrigerants has led to a steady shrinking of the ozone hole.
What the Montreal Protocol has done for the ozone hole threat other international accords could do for climate change – if we all agree.
Vote Leave claims the EU is the slowest growing area in the world. Are they right?
Antarctica’s delicate ecosystem could be under threat from invasive species.
A warming Earth could see invading species arrive in Antarctica via the floating "taxi service" of the sea. That could be a threat to the southern continent's delicate ecosystem.
Ancient air bubbles preserved in Antarctic ice.
The Ellsworth Mountains Project
What gaps have the CSIRO cuts left in climate research?
Some parts of Antarctica’s Totten Glacier are more stable than others.
New mapping shows how Antarctica's huge Totten Glacier has retreated far inland, raising sea levels by more than a metre. Rising temperatures could trigger it to do so again.
Tasmania’s Cape Grim monitoring station passed a crucial carbon dioxide threshold this month.
Bureau of Meteorology
Atmospheric carbon dioxide measurements at Tasmania's Cape Grim and Antarctica's Casy Station have now officially passed 400 parts per million and are likely to stay above that for decades to come.
The past century hasn’t seen the worst drought that Australia’s climate can throw at us.
A new millennium-long record reveals that Australia has suffered longer droughts and wet periods than those recorded in the past century's weather observations.
Research expeditions, like this one to Antarctica, don’t have to rely on governments for funding.
In an atmosphere of declining government funding for science, researchers can drum up excitement and funding in other ways, just as they did in Edwardian times.
A burst of ghostly neutrinos may have been generated by a quasar like this.
A burst of neutrinos detected deep under the Antarctic ice may have originated from a distant quasar on the edge of the visible universe.