The economy is another concern and could lead to wholesale political collapse as more and more Burundians are left without vital services.
The DRC could be the exception after a year in which opposition parties fared badly across East and Central Africa.
Women identify more with their government representatives based on ethnicity rather than gender.
South Sudan faces numerous and serious challenges contributing to instability. But there are potential solutions.
The threat to use force to defend Egypt's right to water from the Nile has been a common theme through successive governments.
An African court with international criminal jurisdiction which has been debated but never been put into operation could be an option if Africa withdraws from the ICC.
Conflict patterns in Africa have changed rapidly in recent years posing a challenge to peace and security.
In countries where health systems are limited, collaboration between traditional healers and health professionals may help fill the gaps.
Many African elections are less than ideal. But is the rest of the world really that much better?
Female teachers can act as role models who enhance girls’ motivation and learning outcomes.
More leaders in more African countries will abolish term limits unless organisations like the African Union take action.
If the referendum goes President Pierre Nkrunziza's way, it will also be a further blow to ordinary Burundians, who live in a state of hardship and adversity.
As early as 1953, Balandier demonstrated how the struggle against colonialism was associated with an inverted vision of the world.
Not all African leaders are willing to be swept by the democratic reforms of the early 2000s.
Not all rebel armies use rape and sexual violence as a weapon. Some have actually designed ways to prevent such atrocities. How and what can we learn from them?
Until African political systems become less majoritarian and do a better job of protecting the rights of minorities, the true benefits of a democratic government are unlikely to be realised.
Zambia has gone from a country where people engaged freely in open political debate to one where most people now look over their shoulders to see who’s listening.
Attempts to deepen democracy in Africa by limiting presidential terms to two have not entirely quashed a culture of entitlement to rule. Glimpses of it persist, much against citizens' wishes.
Several countries across Africa are overburdened by a lack of space and financial support for refugees.
The prospects for reconciliation are bleak. Formal gestures by the government to nudge the opposition parties to join an intra-Burundi dialogue have consistently failed.