There are concerns about the negative environmental and social impact of fracking in the Karoo.
It is extremely important to monitor local seismic activity before fracking starts to avoid causing harm.
Drilling for water in the Karoo where one major concern from fracking is that groundwater will be affected in the shale gas extraction process.
A vulnerability map could help assess the risks associated with fracking and groundwater which around 300 towns depend on in South Africa's Karoo.
A wastewater injection well in Coyle, Oklahoma. Increases in wastewater injection at the underground can destabilise pre-existing faults, setting off earthquakes.
J. Berry Harrison III / News 9 Oklahoma
As global demand for energy and mineral supplies increases worldwide, the number of man‑made earthquakes is expected to rise. That increases the importance of understanding connection between the two.
Fracking has led to an increase in truck traffic, one of the reasons for worsening trends on air quality in areas with oil and gas drilling.
AP Photo/Charles Rex Arbogast
The fracking boom has led to a large increase of hydrocarbon emissions in rural areas, reversing some regional air toxics trends.
With all parties backing the fracking ban apart from the Tories, Scotland will have to secure full devolvement for energy if it is to fully realise its ambitions for renewables
There are indications shale gas may be present in South Africa’s Karoo.
South Africa's Karoo region potentially holds shale gas that could transform the energy economy of the country. But given the uncertainties around exploration what's the next logical step?
Sand for use in hydraulic fracturing operations at a processing plant in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin in 2011.
AP Photo/Steve Karnowski)
Overuse of sand for construction and industry is harming the environment and fueling violence around the world. Scientists explain why we need international rules to regulate sand mining and use.
Why protesters should think about putting their feet up.
Six million people in Pennsylvania and neighboring states get their drinking water from the Susquehanna River. Major pollution sources include agriculture, urban development and industry.
Nicholas A. Tonelli
America's drinking water infrastructure is aging and needs billions of dollars in upgrades. Two extension educators urge consumers to monitor their water and have it tested if they suspect problems.
South Africa’s Karoo has shale gas and could be the location for fracking exploration.
South Africa has been considering shale gas development in the Karoo region. The gas, will be expensive to explore and extract, will be used as part of the country's energy mix.
Can we mitigate the risks associated with fracking?
From crossing a road to fracking for oil, everything has inherent risks. At best, we can only aim to agree that, on balance, they are contained and justified.
The surge in U.S. oil and natural gas production has transformed the energy picture in the country, but the influence is muted globally.
The Trump administration has set a new national policy: energy dominance. But can the US really dominate other countries through fossil fuel exports?
Institut de physique du globe de Paris (IPGP)
Oklahoma is trying to limit the number of earthquakes caused by oil and gas extraction, but some existing faults there – which could be activated by wastewater injection – have never been mapped.
Shell’s drilling rig destined for waters off Alaska met with problems in the Arctic and protesters in Seattle.
AP Photo/Elaine Thompson
The industry has wanted access to offshore oil for decades, but the Arctic remains challenging. Consumers, meanwhile, seem conflicted on expanded offshore drilling.
A false divide between ethics and economics has diluted the immense potential power of the world's biggest sovereign wealth fund.
Protesters rally against coal seam gas in Melbourne, February 2016.
AAP Image/Caroline Zielinski
The federal government seems keen to usher in a new boom in onshore gas production. But gas firms will need to tread carefully, as past experience in Queensland's fracking heartland shows.
California is particularly earthquake-prone, hosting the great San Andreas fault zone.
Can California's wet weather make earthquakes more likely? Scientists are still learning about what triggers these events. Even human activity can be a culprit.
Devastation in Sichuan province after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, thought to be induced by industrial activity at a nearby reservoir.
A new project tracks earthquakes accidentally induced by human activity. It suggests the problem is bigger than some scientists thought.
South Africa’s Karoo region, in the south west of the country, is thought to have significant reserves of shale gas.
Shale gas holds considerable advantages. But there are still a number of uncertainties around whether South Africa is ready for such a bold step.
Trump’s energy plan will be fossil fuels on steroids combined with efforts to roll back limits on greenhouse gases.
AP Photo/Eric Gay
President-elect Trump's objective on energy and climate is clear: Undo Obama's legacy of environmental regulations and massively expand fossil fuel production.