Most African cities are expensive, informal and non-industrial. This has produced unique socioeconomic and environmental risks that must be carefully considered in policy development.
An interactive map of global carbon-dioxide emissions, from 1750 to 2010, provides a better understanding of the roles of different countries in the ongoing climate crisis.
The risk following recently ended economic booms in Africa is that, due to insufficient planning and excessive optimism, the windfalls were wasted. But there are signs that Africa may be changing.
The 'Africa Rising' narrative was disturbed in 2016 by a combination of factors. But the continent is still on firm economic development footing.
Developing countries, specifically in sub-Saharan Africa, are urbanising without industrialising, a trajectory that leaves them with relatively higher poverty rates and share of slums.
Zambia's drive to build its industrial capabilities has made steady progress. But it runs up against the history of economies that are dominated by mineral resources and landlocked countries.