Bashar al-Assad, Vladimir Putin and Recep Tayyip Erdogan have a long history as leaders of their countries and players in the Syrian war.
More than five years into a catastrophic, multi-sided war of attrition, a new order for Syria is coming into view.
Despite the cataclysmic risks of the Cold War, times have never been as dangerous as these since 1945. Freedom and the rule of law are both under threat.
With the many interconnected conflicts within Syria continuing, and with routes to safety increasingly blocked, what can Syria's 4.8m refugees expect in this ‘new’ year?
It's become a popular meme: 2016 was the worst year ever. We'll be lucky if it was.
Despite the assassination of the Russian ambassador in Turkey, Ankara is part of a new ad-hoc coalition with Moscow and Tehran in the MiddleEast.
The images we have seen of Aleppo could play an important role in future discourses about the responsibility to protect.
Ambassador Karlov's death will weaken Turkey's influence in the Syrian conflict.
In the Middle East, there will be no easy choices for the incoming Trump administration - and a wild ride is likely to continue.
Less than a year ago, Andrey Karlov's assassination would've been a dangerous diplomatic incident – but the two massive powers involved have all but mended fences.
The United Nations has failed to protect the Syrian people from the conflict that has torn their lives apart – so now is the time for a "coalition of the obligated" to step in.
When mass graves are disturbed, it makes it harder to find out the truth about what happened.
The Assad regime's takeover of Aleppo is a major strategic and psychological blow for the Syrian opposition.
With the rebels on the back foot and the US sidelined, other major players hold the keys to Syria's future.
Could the president-elect and his secretary of state nominee Rex Tillerson adopt useful policies in the Middle East? A scholar sees some hopeful possibilities.
The repercussions should Donald Trump withdraw from the Iran nuclear agreement, are detrimental to Iran’s economy, regional stability and US dealings with Europe and Russia.
New guidelines from Scotland's universities association are a major step in the right direction.
The most disastrous conflict to break out in the Obama years is still nowhere near its end. It could have been very different.
Muslims everywhere were offended and psychologically shocked by the president-elect’s views. But Syria and Egypt think they can benefit from a Trump presidency.
The humanitarian crisis in the Middle East is getting worse by the day. A survey of aid workers provides a glimpse into life on the ground, and clues to why the humanitarian sector is ailing.