Women who had a secondary or higher level of education were more likely to test for HIV than women who had no formal education.
Local and national governments in west and central African countries must prioritise investment in providing access to HIV testing for all pregnant women.
The mortality rate of AIDS-related deaths remains high among adolescent girls and young women.
The evidence shows that keeping girls in school not only reduces HIV risk, but also delays marriage and pregnancy, and improves mental health.
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The HIV/AIDS response played out over a much longer trajectory than COVID-19. But it is, in some respects, a shining example of what can be achieved when countries and people work together.
2020 is the international year of the nurse and midwife.
Nurses represent 50% of the global healthcare workforce. And they are often the sole healthcare providers in many low and middle-income countries.
Many hospitals permit nurses to initiate and manage patients on ART.
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The giant leap in the number of people accessing HIV treatment would not have been possible without task shifting from medical doctors to less-specialised cadres such as nurses and midwives.
As it toured schools, the play Talk to Me, about two friends and HIV, was able to create brave and safe spaces for conversation about a challenging subject.
Early diagnosis and treatment are key in the fight against HIV.
One of the main challenges remains that diagnostics and drugs for people suffering from advanced HIV aren't readily available. This group of people is vulnerable to deadly opportunistic infections.
Male involvement antenatal care helps with the uptake of services and retention in care of both the mother and her baby.
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Male involvement in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is key for the uptake of services and retention in care. When men are involved, HIV exposed or infected children do better.
The COVID-19 new normal might be here for quite some time.
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As ready as you are to be done with COVID-19, it's not going anywhere soon. A historian of disease describes how once a pathogen emerges, it's usually here to stay.
Many factors influence how consistently women take their HIV medicine.
The use of antiretroviral therapy among pregnant and breastfeeding women in Zambia has increased but adherence is a problem.
Polio patient in an iron lung to help them breathe.
Public trust is key to a successful immunisation programme.
A laboratory technician processes samples for testing COVID-19 at the Rwanda Biomedical Center in Kigali.
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Pooled testing, or group testing, has been used to diagnose relatively rare conditions, such as infection in blood donors. It could be used for universal early infant diagnosis and viral load testing.
Adolescents need to be part of prevention interventions.
Underlying social and structural causes of behaviour - such as poverty and gender disparities - are often ignored. But these are potential drivers of HIV infection among young people.
AIDS activists lie down in protest in front of parliament in 2001 in Cape Town, South Africa.
Staging this conference in all time zones with fair distribution of prime-time events was no small feat. But the exchange of ideas, experiences and solutions remained a strong priority.
A woman carries a bucket of fresh water to an informal settlement in Khayelitsha,Cape Town.
COVID-19 has stretched South Africa's public health services to capacity. In response, the services have increased their capacity through innovation.
A healthcare worker in a protective suit is seen at a quarantine and isolation centre in Johannesburg, South Africa.
The redirection of resources to COVID-19 has enormous consequences for the provision of healthcare services for other diseases, in particular, HIV programmes.
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HIV activists in South Africa laid the foundation for relatively widespread citizen trust in science and expertise. Now government must capitalise on this and drive COVID-19 prevention campaigns.
A victim of the Aids pandemic is buried in Cape Town in 2004.
The British press ignored the millions of deaths from HIV/Aids in Africa for far too long.
A volunteer receives an injection from a medical worker during the country’s first human clinical trial for a potential vaccine against COVID-19 in Soweto, South Africa.
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In a pandemic like this one, the priority is to save lives. But without a vaccine, there's a limit in the tools available to save lives.
Korean health workers offer coronavirus testing in the Itaewon nightlife district of Seoul.
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South Korea's mass surveillance to curb the coronavirus pandemic uses technologies and techniques that are grounded in anti-LGBTQ discrimination.