Given the impact of African players in European football, it’s remarkable how few are able to secure jobs in football in Europe after their playing days end.
The images projected to fans of the sport have always been intentional. Here’s what they do to keep people onside.
The failure of the ESL does not represent a victory of fans over commerce, or of culture over capitalism. It is the very existence of fans that cements football’s commercial nature.
The American money men are replacing Russian oligarchs and Arab oil tycoons as the next wave of club buyers.
Diversification into related businesses can provide a firmer financial footing.
Clubs are more wary about buying and selling.
Football presents itself as a neutral, universal and, in a way, desexualised sport. Yet despite widespread campaigns against homophobia, deeply negative attitudes about gay players persist.
In many countries sports like football brings people together, but in Bosnia it re-emphasises the divides.
European football matches allow African fans to partake in the aspirational dreams exported worldwide by the Premier League or the Champions League.