The death of Caesar.
New research suggests ancient climate change shaped the fate of western civilisation.
Close-up of a marine nitrogen fixer colony.
Nitrogen-fixing bacteria help tropical phytoplankton absorb carbon dioxide, creating a biological pump in the oceans.
Wilhem Berrouet’s impression of Columbus arriving in America.
Salon de la Mappemonde/Flickr
No records of the size of Native American populations before 1492 and the arrival of Europeans survive. A new study has found answers.
Sea ice trapped atmospheric carbon dioxide in the last ice age.
The last ice age locked atmospheric carbon dioxide into oceans, which has major implications for how the oceans and carbon dioxide may be linked in the future.
Creative Travel Projects / Shutterstock.com
A volcanic eruption in 1815 triggered a year without a summer – prompting a flowering of nature writing that is all too relevant today.
Volcanic eruptions since 2000 have had a cooling effect on the earth’s climate. Benjamin Santer and colleagues found that…
Let’s start an ice age.
A volcano in Indonesia may be the location of a massive “mystery eruption” that has perplexed volcanologists for decades, according to a new study. The eruption occurred in 1257, and it could also be one…
A “cold snap” 116 million years ago triggered similar problems for marine life as more recent crises caused by global warming…