The Mediterranean region, with its biodiversity, climate, demographics, and economic activities such as tourism, agriculture and fisheries, is particularly vulnerable to environmental risks.
Official statistics record 377 deaths in the Mediterranean in 2020, but the true figure is likely to be much higher.
Migrants have been left to die in the Mediterranean as Italy and Malta declared their harbours 'unsafe' in the middle of the coronavirus pandemic.
Turkey harbours strong national ambitions, and a willingness to grow and use its military muscle alongside economic instruments.
Research in Sicily finds that anti-immigration policies don't slow the flow of immigrants, but do hurt local residents in communities where migrants first arrive.