Shanghai from above (left) and on the ground (right) – a public toilet in a market hall.
In the rush to become 'open defecation free', cities are taking quick fixes that are making matters worse.
Billions of people globally don’t have access to safe, clean toilets.
Research shows that targeting poor communities will go a long way in solving the country's open defecation issues.
Cultural, social and environmental factors all matter if India wants to succeed in its goal to boost sanitation.
Public toilets in the city of Varanasi in India.
For an emerging country like India, it is easier to take part in exploratory missions to Mars than to tackle its sanitation challenge.
Newly built toilets at Harper transit site in Liberia.
While everyone needs access to proper sanitation to stay healthy, for girls and women it is also an issue of safety and equal participation in society.
Children in Ethiopia wash their hands outside a school latrine.
More than two billion people lack access to decent sanitation. Innovative sanitation technologies can bring toilets into the 21st century with benefits for the developing and developed world.
Any analysis worth its salt of what it means to be poor will include indicators explicitly linked to health – nutrition, for example, or mortality rates. But in reality, the many different aspects of poverty…