Being the victim of trauma can trigger the onset of PTSD. But so can being violent against others – which means young people in gangs risk deep psychological scars.
Repression is a defensive process where the mind forgets or places events, thoughts and memories we cannot acknowledge or bear elsewhere.
The debate about the nature of early trauma memories and their recovery isn't new.
Marine Staff Sgt Anthony Mannino uses art and music as part of therapeutic care for his traumatic brain injury.
Marvin Lynchard/US Department of Defence
Using creativity and artistic metaphor to tap unconscious memories helps release pent up trauma.
Some soldiers’ wounds in WWI were more mental than physical.
George Metcalf Archival Collection
Mental health trauma has always been a part of war. Treatments have come a long way over the last century, but we still don't understand why the responses change for different people and times.
Our views of who’s at risk of post-traumatic stress disorder might cloud who we think deserves to be treated.
When we think of post-traumatic stress disorder, we tend to think of soldiers returning from war. But other sections of society are far more likely to suffer from repeated bouts of trauma.
Up to 90% of Australian female prisoners were victims of abuse prior to incarceration.
AAP Image/Dave Hunt
To reduce female recidivism rates, we need to address inmates' histories of trauma and abuse.
PTSD isn't all about bombs and bullets. The baggage soldiers and medics bring to war zones will help us better understand diverse responses.
Collective trauma: A boy walks among some of the 3,000 flags placed in memory of the lives lost in the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks.
Even indirect exposure to the terrorist attacks of September 11 has left profound and deep impact on those too young to remember a world before that.
Amid the chaos of a dressing station, a dazed soldier sits with a thousand-yard stare.
100 years after the Battle of the Somme, we are only now starting to unravel the mystery causes of shell shock.
A child from a special care centre in Cape Town celebrating international kite day. In South Africa mental health services are not a priority.
While the global health community has made mental healthcare a priority, South Africa is not following suite. The impact is felt most acutely by poor people suffering from mental health disorders.