Prejudice and stereotypes are part of why social inequality persists. Social scientists use tests to measure the implicit biases people harbor and see how much they relate to actions.
Ethical dilemmas arise not because someone did not know the ethical rules. Instead, they arise when individuals are unable to identify the relevant ethical principle at the time of crisis.
There are many instances where underrepresented groups may be unwittingly discriminated against in recruitment due to affinity bias.
Ms Dhu's is not the first report into mistreatment of an Aboriginal person in custody or a medical setting, nor is it likely to be the last.