Images from Plastic Surgery of the Face by Sir Harold Gillies, 1920.
Scars shouldn't be a shorthand for evil.
Marie Curie in one of her mobile X-ray units in October 1917.
During World War I, Marie Curie left her lab behind, inventing a mobile X-ray unit that could travel to the battlefront and training 150 women to operate these 'Little Curies.'
Edward Teshmaker Busk.
On the trail of the men of Britain's Royal Aircraft Factory, who gave their lives to help create the world's first air force.
LGBT veterans march in a Boston parade. Contrary to what some may say, the military has a long history of embracing socially marginalized groups.
AP Photo/Steven Senne
Whether it be African-Americans, Catholics or transgender people, the armed forces have played a vital role in shaping US social policy toward the country's minorities.
Against the odds: French troops throw rocks at advancing German troops in the Vosges, 1916.
The French Army's efforts in the world wars have long been maligned. Its soldiers deserve better.
The Mendi shown here in pre-war days in use as a mail ship.
Courtesy of the John Gribble Collection
What might be the purpose of historical fiction? Perhaps to the humble and subtle to recognise and pay tribute to lives that came before us.
Allied forces wearing gas masks at Ypres, 1917.
The first fully industrialised war prompted many to draw parallels between human society and the insect world.
How academic sleuthing uncovered the Edinburgh setting for a historic meeting of three of the greatest war poets
A pigeon ready for release, showing the cylinder containing a message strapped to her leg.
Imperial War Museum
The humble carrier pigeon played a huge role in World War I and saved many lives. But despite huge technological advances, animals are still suffering and dying in modern wars.
A visitor pauses at the Vietnam War Memorial in Washington, D.C.
AP Photo/J. David Ake, File
An Army veteran and professor of rhetoric explores poetry written by veterans about a divisive holiday born of the Civil War.
Igor Zh / Shutterstock.com
Weather forecasting stopped looking for patterns in the past, and started using numbers to look solidly at the future.
An April 2017 commemoration in Edinburgh for the centenary of the Battle of Arras.
David Cheskin/PA Wire
A 1915 morality play by Vernon Lee makes a powerful critique of jingoist group-think.
German infantrymen aim machine guns from a trench near the Vistula River in 1916.
In the winter of 1915, a German soldier died in a field hospital in Russia. We don't know his name, but he helped revolutionize the way gay people have advocated for equality.
The censorship board. George Creel is seated at far right.
Harris & Ewing/Library of Congress
An executive order signed in 1917 created what's been called 'the nation's first ministry of information.' The media are still feeling its impact.
Part of a black cotton cushion cover depicting the Australian coat of arms embroidered by Lance Corporal Alfred Briggs (Albert Biggs), 20 Battalion, AIF.
Courtesy of Australian War Memorial
Embroidery - often seen as women's work - was a common form of therapy for troops wounded in the first world war. One soldier, Albert Biggs, learned to sew with his left hand after his right arm was badly injured.
Australians are deeply attached to the cluster of beliefs and traditions we call the ‘Anzac legend’.
In 1960, historian Ken Inglis wondered if Anzac functioned as a secular religion in Australian society. In 2017, we can confidently answer: yes, it does.
Many in the Western Front contracted haemorrhagic dysentery.
Wellcome Library, London
When commemorating our troops, doctors and nurses this Anzac Day, consider also tipping your hat to the discovery of bacteriophages. In the post-antibiotic era, our health might just depend on them.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan has been a central figure in linking the Gallipoli campaign with Islamic conceptualisations of the Turkish nation.
The Gallipoli campaign has, in recent years, increasingly become part of the culture wars in Turkey associated with the rise of political Islam.
Edward Thomas used English to write about the spirit of Wales.
Arthur St John Adcock/Wikimedia
Poet Edward Thomas took from the traditions of Wales, and the beauty of the land to describe the horrors of war.
Chief John Big Tree, Dark Cloud, Jack Cosgrave, Adda Gleason and Robert Goldstein in The Spirit of ‘76 (1917).
During the war, fear of being undermined by the enemy sparked restrictions on freedom of speech. As a result, thousands of Americans were prosecuted.