Surface proteins on a virus enable it to attach to and get inside a cell to start replicating.
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Viruses can get into cells in several ways. Figuring out how to stop them from entering in the first place is a key to developing better vaccines and stopping future pandemics.
The black-legged tick is the vector that spreads Lyme disease. Its bite can infect humans with the Borrelia burgdorferi bacterium.
The bacterium that causes Lyme disease is a master of disguise, changing its appearance to evade the immune system as it moves from the ticks that carry it to humans or animals.
Extensive evidence shows COVID-19 vaccinations in pregnancy are safe, when given at any time during the pregnancy.
COVID-19 vaccination has been shown to be safe in pregnancy, and protects both the mother and infant from severe disease. It’s now also clear that infants’ antibody protection continues after birth.
Infection and vaccination both leave their mark in your blood.
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There’s pretty much no one left in the US who hasn’t been exposed to the coronavirus, whether by vaccination, infection or both.
Covid-19 exposed critical shortcomings of existing diagnostic techniques.
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The pandemic spurred the diagnostics industry to consider aspects like scale, affordability, speed and portability of tests.
Nasal vaccines for COVID-19 are still in early development.
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An effective nasal vaccine could stop the virus that causes COVID-19 right at its point of entry. But devising one that works has been a challenge for researchers.
Insect bites or stings, like the one on this person’s hand, are a manifestation of inflammation.
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Inflammation is a complicated and important part of how the immune system responds to threats to the body. But when the inflammatory response goes awry, it can lead to serious problems.
Rheumatoid arthritis leads to painful joint inflammation, often in the hands and wrists.
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A new species of bacteria that doesn’t normally live in the gut may trigger an immune response so strong that it spreads to the joints.
Broadly neutralizing antibodies are able to recognize multiple strains of HIV at once.
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Antiretroviral therapies for HIV, while extremely effective, need to be taken daily for life. Designing antibody treatments that need to be taken only once could improve compliance and reduce drug resistance.
It is safe to get the newly formulated COVID-19 booster shot and the flu shot at the same time.
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When COVID-19 and the flu co-infect, it’s ‘flurona.’ But such cases are rare, and there are effective ways to protect yourself from both viruses.
Evidence is growing there are changes to your immune system that may put you at risk of other infectious diseases.
Approximately 30% of people who get COVID-19 develop long-term symptoms, or long COVID-19.
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A new study finds that misdirected immune responses can persist for months in those who are suffering from long COVID-19.
Investigators in Florida traced a listeria outbreak to ice cream.
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Listeria causes serious illness and food recalls nearly every year.
With mask mandates and vaccine requirements lifting, public health information remains crucial so people can weigh their own COVID-19 risks.
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To help people make informed decisions about ongoing COVID-19 risks, public health messaging needs to adapt as the pandemic evolves, just as immune systems adapt to new viruses and variants.
Researchers can test blood samples taken for other reasons to see if patients have previously had COVID-19.
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Your blood can hold a record of past illnesses. That information can reveal how many people have had a certain infection – like 58% of Americans having had COVID-19 by the end of February 2022.
Although the COVID-19 vaccines have saved millions of lives, they have been insufficient at preventing breakthrough infections.
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Research suggests that too-frequent immunizations may lead to a phenomenon called “immune exhaustion.”
While many immunocompromised and high-risk patients may benefit from AstraZeneca’s Evusheld, drug distribution and access have been uneven.
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Evusheld is an antibody drug from AstraZeneca intended to help prevent COVID-19 infection for immunocompromised and other vulnerable patients.
Researchers are working to develop vaccines that provide long-term immune protection from COVID-19.
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Because COVID-19 is a relatively new virus, researchers still aren’t sure exactly how long vaccines and prior infections provide protection.
New variants of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, arise through mutations when the virus replicates in an infected host’s cells.
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COVID-19 variants are the products of the evolution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. They arise via mutations, but other forces also have roles to play in the generation and transmission of variants.
Immunologists are studying how the SARS-CoV-2 virus interacts with antibodies in the immune system.
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COVID-19 has taken away so much. An immunology researcher describes the good it may leave behind.