SARS-CoV-2 variants have also played an integral part in driving the course of the pandemic.
Communities with high vaccine coverage rates are likely to see lower case numbers, hospitalisations and deaths related to COVID-19 compared to those with poor vaccine coverage.
Australia could again fall into the trap of false economies by opening up too soon.
Laws restrict the ways insurers can use vaccination status to affect coverage or premiums.
AP Photo/Marcio Jose Sanchez
Two economists explain what insurers can and can’t do to factor vaccination status into their coverage and rates.
With many vaccine-eligible people in the U.S. staying away, some vaccine sites have no lines.
Mario Tama/Getty Images
People who haven’t gotten vaccinated for COVID-19 often have complex reasons for their relunctance or may face other barriers. Lumping them all together undercuts the vaccination campaign.
Two public health nurses vaccinate adults at a polio clinic in Southey, Sask. in 1960.
(Canadian Nurses Association fonds. Library and Archives Canada)
At the height of polio and H1N1, Canadians were keen to get vaccinated, but vaccine enthusiasm waned once the crisis had passed — what does that mean for COVID-19?
Age and education level are the main factors associated with vaccine hesitancy. While this affects Māori and Pacific communities, basic access to health care and information is more important.
Black patients can be wary of the medical establishment.
Maskot via Getty Images
Though COVID-19 has killed Black Americans at nearly twice the rate as white Americans, Black people are the least likely racial group to say they’re eager to get the vaccine.
Whether an employer can insist on vaccination as a condition of employment is an ambiguous legal question, as shown by two recent unfair dismissal cases.
Vaccine hesitancy is not new, but it has a new element: few people can remember the devastating impact of diseases such as smallpox and polio and it is hard to see the lives saved by vaccination.
Chandan Khanna/AFP via Getty Images
Clear messages from experts helped New Zealand to contain COVID-19 outbreaks. The same is now necessary to counter vaccine misinformation and to build public trust in vaccination.
The World Health Organization estimates that 117 million people worldwide may have missed a vaccination during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Children may have fallen behind on their vaccination schedules during the pandemic, increasing the risk that COVID-19 may be followed by outbreaks of once-eradicated diseases.
There is no clear difference in measles control between countries that mandate vaccination and those that don’t.
Kim Whitley holds her granddaughter Kole, 3, as she joins other opponents of the recently passed legislation to tighten the rules on giving exemptions for vaccinations In a demonstration in front of Gov. Gavin Newsom’s Capitol office in Sacramento, Calif., Monday, Sept. 9, 2019.
Rich Pedroncelli/AP Photo
California has limited medical exemptions for vaccinating children. A new law places final authority with the state public health department, but does that shift the balance of power?
Anti-vaccine protesters at a rally.
Ted S. Warren/AP Photo
Studies have shown that the reasons for anti-vaccine sentiment run deep, and scientific facts don’t often matter. A new study drills deeper into reasons for resistance and possible ways to counteract them.
Cleaning counters and keyboards can remove flu virus, which can survive well there, a study suggests.
Vaccination against the flu is the best way to stop its spread, but a recent study suggests increasing air circulation and cleaning surfaces to remove the virus from the environment.
Flu vaccination uptake rates are low in adults, including among those who work in health, aged care and childcare.
Most immunisation campaigns continue to primarily focus on infants and children, but almost 4 million Australian adults are not vaccinated against preventable diseases.
For some parents, the decision to vaccinate requires more than just objective evidence.
Whilst most parents do vaccinate, health professionals often find it difficult to talk with those who are hesitant or decline. A new resource provides information and communication support.
Protecting the herd means a certain proportion of the population has to be immunised.
When a high proportion of a community is immune it becomes hard for diseases to spread from person to person – a phenomenon known as herd immunity.