Drivers for online ride-hailing services face several social conditions that may challenge their efforts to transform collective action into a solid union.
Increased foreign investment in the digital economy means a national conversation is needed to ensure that citizens don't get exploited.
Using technology and rhetoric, ride-hailing companies manage to dictate drivers while simultaneously creating the illusion of equal relation.
Indonesia revised a regulation on ride-hailing services to ensure fair competition. But the government has yet to address the job insecurity issues that drivers face.