An Arctic iceberg, pictured in 2015. This year, ice coverage has reached record lows for the early northern winter.
The end of 2016 has brought balmy Arctic temperatures and record low ice extent for the time of year. It's a freak event even by modern standards, and climate models point the finger firmly at humans.
From Norway with love.
An object lesson in seasonal geopolitics.
Sea ice covering the Arctic Ocean during the winter peak in February 2015.
NASA's Scientific Visualization Studio
There is no doubt that 2016 has been a record-breaking year for the Earth’s climate.
The region's reserves are in very deep water and won't be tapped into any time soon.
The world reacts to President-Elect Donald Trump.
AP Photo/Marco Ugarte
America appears as divided over key aspects of foreign policy as it is at home. So how does President-elect Trump hope to handle that divide, and what will be the major issues facing him?
Testing the waters.
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Follow
Cold polar water can stop the Arctic sea ice from melting – but what happens if it warms up?
The crew of scientists prepare to put the drill stem into the Greenland ice sheet to probe water flows about a half of a mile below.
A glaciologist develops a lightweight method for probing the depths of Greenland's ice sheet to answer a crucial question: How fast is it melting?
HMS Terror. Engraving by George Back.
via Wikimedia Commons
168 years on, experts are finally uncovering the secrets of the Royal Navy's tragic expedition to the Northwest Passage.
dinozzaver / shutterstock
There are a number of laws that Arctic states and indigenous peoples can turn to to protect their environment.
Victoria was one of several states to suffer bushfires as temperatures soared in late 2015.
AAP Image/David Crosling
2015 was the world's hottest year on record. The US State of the Climate report has rounded up the litany of temperature and other records that were broken all over the globe.
Arctic migrants such as this Sanderling face an uncertain future.
For birds migrating to the top of the world, the warming climate could severely contract the available space they have to breed.
Christmas Eve 2015, Paris.
Well Santa has come and gone, at least for the largest proportion of the world’s population. And, as we reach the end of the year, it is inevitably time to review recent trends and the prospects for 2016…
Think Arctic, think stranded polar bears? There's more to it than that.
Rene van der Wal
A team of researchers went to the High Arctic to retrace the steps of a 1960s expedition. They came away with far more than they bargained for.
The warming global climate is causing fundamental changes to the carbon cycle in northern parts of the world.
Global warming is changing the movement of carbon within northern ecosystems to the point where the Arctic could become a net source, rather than sink, of greenhouse gas emissions.
Carbon in some types of ancient permafrost is digested by greenhouse gas-producing microbes.
US Bureau of Land Management
Scientists are studying how carbon-rich permafrost known as yedoma acts much like frozen vegetables to hungry microbes -- and is becoming an additional source of heat-trapping gases.
Time to move on: Shell’s Kulluk rig being rescued by Coast Guard in 2013.
US Department of Defense
Did environmentalists force Shell to exit the Arctic? Not really. Blame economics and geopolitics first and foremost.
Troubles with Shell: in 2013, its drill became stranded and had to be rescued.
Aaron M. Johnson/US Air Force
Shell has abandoned oil exploration offshore Alaska for now but a variety of trends are driving the energy industry to take a fresh look at Arctic drilling.
Stay alert, make lots of noise, and if all else fails, carry a big gun.
Hot spot for much-needed research.
The House proposes slashing funding for earth science from NASA's budget, yet this science is critical to understanding – and coping with – the dramatic effects of a warming Arctic around the world.