Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources
Unlike the U.S., some European countries have stopped using chlorine to disinfect drinking water to avoid changing the taste and potential health problems. Which approach is better?
Michigan National Guard members distribute water to a line of residents in their cars in Flint, Michigan.
The Flint water crisis has left people across the country wondering if lead poisoning is a problem in their community. But it's very hard to find out how widespread this problem is.
Virginia Tech students process water samples from homes in Flint.
Flint Water Study/Facebook
Virginia Tech University engineering students blew the whistle on Flint, Michigan's toxic drinking water. Hailed as heroes, they've also learned that it isn't easy to do science for the public good.
Justice scale and flag.
St. Louis Circuit Attorney's Office/Wikimedia
Many observers have called for criminal prosecutions in Flint, Michigan's water crisis. A law professor with experience in federal and state government reviews the laws that may have been broken.
Lead can linger in bones.
X-ray via www.shutterstock.com.
Lead might not be in paint or gasoline anymore, but since it doesn't break down in the home or the environment it remains a problem throughout the U.S.
Lead exposure is more common than you think.
Children exposed to lead are at elevated risk for learning delays and academic issues.
Gateway to downtown Flint, Michigan.
Michigan Municipal League/Flickr
The state takeover and fiscal crisis in Flint hamstrung city managers, making it hard to provide basic services like water.
Disinfecting municipal water systems is complex, but Flint made critical errors that led to the lead poisoning crisis.
Treating municipal water, particularly from rivers, is difficult technically and cash-strapped municipalities like Flint don't always know the latest science.
The University of Michigan-Flint puts experts from academia in the same room as Flint community members, an innovative model for educating the community and forming the public health response.
Flint, Michigan residents couldn’t get answers about their water – so they did their own research.
A new model of citizen-led science is emerging – as in the case of Flint, Michigan's poisoned water. Rather than simply supporting scientists, citizens ask their own questions and set the research agenda.
Up until the 1940s, as much as half of U.S. water piping from main lines was made of lead.
A wake-up call from Flint: the U.S. has made great gains in reducing lead exposure, but the country is still saddled with millions of miles of water-carrying lead pipes.
Tap water in Flint’s hospital on October 16.
Joyca Zhu/Flint Water Study
If Flint, Michigan were an affluent suburb, would residents have been exposed as long to drinking toxic water? Pioneering scholar Robert Bullard calls Flint's crisis a classic case of environmental discrimination